Sunday, May 24, 2020

Hamlet Revenge, Uncertainty, And Madness - 1252 Words

Hamlet is one of William Shakespeare’s tragedy play surrounded with three major themes: Revenge, Uncertainty, and Madness. Throughout the play, the theme Madness is surrounding the protagonist, Hamlet. Although, nowadays, Hamlet’s madness is still an enigma to the readers. His words and actions are highly debated whether he is deeply submerged in the sea of madness or he is merely acting. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, madness is â€Å"the state of having serious mental sickness, or showing foolish actions and completely unrestrained by reason and judgment.† Based on this definition, Hamlet could be seen as truly sane through his intellectual, calculating mind and other characters’ viewpoint on his action. In the beginning of the†¦show more content†¦Another time, Hamlet shows how upset and betrayed he is, â€Å"You would pluck out the hear of my mystery†, â€Å"Call me what instrument you will, though you can fret me, you ca nnot play upon me† (II.II.373-380) or calling Polonius as a â€Å"fishmonger†. His act of lunacy gives a sense of distrust and elucidates Hamlet cleverness through his sarcastic riddles, wittiness, in the guise of madness to insult, criticize and ridicule without anyone suspicious. Also, he can gain information by observing Claudius and his henchmen’s moves to generate a new plan that leads to his motive of killing Claudius. No mad man would be able to construct such plans and thoughts. His crazy talk has a reason and the reader can easily notice the implication in it, how he astutely uses the act not only to mock but also to monitor their plans closely while they are not guarded. In contrast, unlike an insane man, Hamlet displays his intellectuality at times where it is not necessary to act mad. When Hamlet tells Horatio about the play â€Å"Observe my uncle. If his occulted guilt does not itself unkennel in one speech.† (III.II.82) or when he is directin g the players â€Å"Suit the action to the word, the word to the action† (III.II.18) these are not how a mad man can talk, these shows how Hamlet is rather calculating and perfecting his plan than being truly mad. Hamlet’s sanity can also be proven through other characters’Show MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet And Hamlet1442 Words   |  6 Pagesmultifaceted nature of revenge. Furthermore, the ability of a text to have different interpretations and discussions about these varying interpretations contributes to the textual integrity of a text. Madness and its portrayal throughout Hamlet and Hamlet’s ruminations endows audiences thoughts into the complex nature of revenge. The impacts of madness, introspection, uncertainty and honour on Hamlet’s ability to enact revenge contribute to the complex nature of revenge in Hamlet. Thus, the textualRead MoreIs the Ghost in Hamlet Pure Evil? Essay1181 Words   |  5 PagesGhost in Hamlet is a widel y controversial topic with arguments determining whether the Ghost is a â€Å"goblin damn’d† or a â€Å"spirit of health.† (1.4.40) â€Å"‘A spirit of health’ is one, which comes from heaven with charitable intentions, and ‘a goblin damn’d’ is one, which comes from Hell with wicked intentions.† The Ghost only has two appearances in the play and is a symbol for uncertainty, yet it is important as it catalyses the play into action and also Hamlet into madness. The Ghost in Hamlet is an evilRead More Insanity in Hamlet1565 Words   |  7 PagesHamlet: A look Inside the Insanity Many people have seen Hamlet as a play about uncertainty and about Hamlets failure to act appropriately. It is very interesting to consider that the play shows many uncertainties that lives are built upon, or how many unknown quantities are taken for granted when people act or when they evaluate one anothers actions. Hamlet is an especially intriguing production, both on the set and on the screen because of its uniqueness to be different from what most peopleRead MoreMadness versus Reality in Hamlet1550 Words   |  6 PagesRunning Head: Hamlet Madness Versus Reality A tragic story motivated by revenge leads to a tragic end with avengers hunger for revenge results in death of the murderer and most often demise of the avenger himself. Revenge tragedies share within themselves some common aspects; sub plots, madness, passion, one or more violent scenes and a main character filled with hate for a significant opponent usually due to a crime committed against the avenger or the main character. Since authorities of theRead MoreHamlet s Madness Is Less Than Madness And More Than Feigned779 Words   |  4 PagesPeriod Dec. 17. 2015 Fact or Fake? â€Å"Hamlet’s madness is less than madness and more than feigned†. What is madness? Mad is a word with such uncertainty that it can be stretched to mean an abundance of things more than just pure psychological instability: a weariness of life; a suicidal impulse; a plotting charisma. In the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare, a wild disagreement has been consequent for a series of years in the case of the madness of Hamlet, the play s central narrative, was justifiableRead MoreHamlets Madness Essay1147 Words   |  5 PagesShakespeare’s famous play Hamlet parallels this quote as it portrays his character caught in a mental battle as a result of his madness. When left alone to his thoughts, Hamlet contemplates decisions to the point of obsession, leading him into isolation. He can no longer distinguish fantasy from reality in turn motivating his impulsive behavior and stripping him of his integrity. Shakespeare has Hamlet feign madness however, as a result of hi s father’s murder, the obsession to plot revenge on Claudius, andRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare891 Words   |  4 Pagesliterature, William Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, was written in the early 1600s. Set in the Kingdom of Denmark, the protagonist, young prince Hamlet, is instructed by the ghostly figure of his father to seek revenge on his uncle, Claudius. Hamlet’s father was murdered by Claudius, who seized the throne after his death and married the queen, Hamlet’s mother. The occurring events possibly drive young Hamlet into madness. Madness plays a major part in the play, Hamlet, but one could compare Hamlet’s abilityRead MoreTheme Analysis : The Tragedy Of Hamlet 1578 Words   |  7 PagesJackson F. Jones Mrs. Larr English IV 1st Period 16 December 2014 Theme Analysis of Hamlet The tragedy of Hamlet is a work of literature that contains a multitude of themes. Some of these themes are apparently obvious as you read through the tragedy. Themes such as revenge and madness present themselves openly through the progression of the story. However, there are other themes that lurk below the surface. You just have to dive a little deeper into the story to find them. On the surface, the themeRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet - Hamlet1083 Words   |  5 PagesTitle: Hamlet Author: William Shakespeare Main Characters (Protagonist/Antagonist), Title, Traits: Hamlet (Protagonist): Prince of Denmark. Sarcastic, intelligent, stricken with grief at the death of his father, Hamlet Senior. Son of Hamlet Sr and Gertrude. Disgusted by his mother’s marriage to his uncle, Claudius. He is profoundly reflective, but at times acts rashly (likely the result of the rage and grief that consumes him thanks to the circumstances). Has a desire to bring justice to thoseRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Hamlet By William Shakespeare Essay822 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeare finished one of the most famous plays of revenge in English history. This play has left a plethora of questions, most left unanswered even after the hundreds of scholars who have analyzed it. The complexity and multiple facades of the characters, the use of many themes, and the symbols in this play have been construed into a delicate tale; Shakespeare purposely left out many details in order to shroud this piece in mystery. In The Tragedy of Hamlet, Shakespeare s vague developing characters create

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Recruitment And Selection Process Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2665 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? In this report the topic that will be discussed is The Recruitment and Selection process and how it has moved on from the days of newspaper ads and block interviews. The introduction of the report will discuss recruitment and selection and the methods of recruitment and selection. The main body of the report will focus on companies today, and how they are recruiting and selecting with more innovative approaches that many companies are beginning to use in 2013. Then in the report there will be a section on some weaknesses about the ways in which companies are beginning to recruit and select. To conclude the report I will sum up everything on the topic of recruitment and selection and state my opinion. Recruitment and selection is one of the many roles played by a human resource manager in an organisation. In the human resource department they deal with what positions need to be filled, they take the possible candidates through a series of interviews, select the best candidate for the job, the training of the employees, they also tell the employees all about the services they offer and they make sure that the employees and the organisation are highly motivated. Organisations all over the world have realized that human resources is a very valuable asset to them and therefore necessary measures have been put in place to make sure that the organisation will gain and keep a highly skilled workforce which would guarantee that the organisation manage a competitive advantage over its competitors (Jones George, 2007). In recruiting and selecting it is very important to have a clear job description and personal specification. A job description will entail what the title of the job is, to whom the job holder will be responsible and for whom they will be responsible too. It will also entail what their roles and responsibilities will be. A person specification will look for what skills and characteristics the applicants will need for the job. When applying the two together they provide the foundation for a job advertisement. Recruitment is the process in which you source possible applicants for a job. The manager who is in charge of hiring the applicants can use the likes of job boards, social networking sites, recruitment programmes that may be linked with colleges and possibly job fairs. These may be used by companies to create an interest in jobs that are available in a certain company (Peterson, J. 2013). Selection is the process where when all the candidates have been selected the group of candidates will be broken down and one out of all of them will be selected for the job. This process may and can require a couple of different interviews and assessments of the applicants personality (Peterson, J. 2013). For the selection of a candidate, many organisations use a range of different tools and technologies to measure a candidates abilities and skills, allowing them to successfully choose the most qualified candid ates that would benefit the company most to proceed to the interview process. By assessing a candidates skills this will enable the organisation to look into different qualifications within the interview.(Human Resource Management in Ireland 3rd edition (2006) Page 119). As part of the recruitment and selection process, it is very important to assess the candidates true interest in the company and their position in the organisation, which can then ensure you are hiring a long-term employee. A good way to retain employees in an organisation is to include things such as telling them about their salary and the benefits that they may offer within the good work environment. Today there are many different methods of recruitment such as: 1. Internal methods e.g. Internal promotion 2. External agencies e.g. Employment agency 3. Printed media e.g. National local newspapers 4. Other media e.g. Internet, TV 5. Education Liaison e.g. Careers fairs 6. Professional c ontracts e.g. Conferences, trade unions 7. Other methods e.g. Past applicants, word of mouth (Noel Harvey Lecture slides) There are a few different selection processes, which are as follows: The interview The objective of this, is to meet the candidate face to face to see if they are the right person for the job, to record some answers to critical incident-type questions, to discuss contractual terms and conditions etc. Psychometric tests Standardised test of performance attitudes or personality. There are a few different types for example: cognitive ability, personality, attitudes and values, and career choice and guidance. These tests can either precede or follow interview stage. Results can form basis of further interview questions, or interview can be used to feedback test results. Assessment centres Multiple-method design, usually incorporating testing, interviews, and work sample exercises, where candidates are tested by observers on job-relevant dimens ions. Can last from 1-5 days. These are usually the final stage of assessment to reach outcome decisions. This is a good form of selection because it gives employers the opportunity to observe candidates over a longer period of time in formal and informal situations, and multiple assessments by several assessors over several exercises can eliminate some individual biases associated with one-to-one interviews.(Human Resource Management in Ireland 3rd edition (2006) Page 120) It is essential to recruit and select employees who are fully committed to the aims and objectives of the organisation. An employee who believes in what the company is about and what it wants to achieve, will try their best to accomplish the companys goals. They will want the company to be successful, and will feel the sense of achievement from being part of the companys success. By hiring the right high quality employees for the job, with the right qualifications and skills, who are determined to succeed, thi s will result in increased levels of organisation performance. Every company has recruitment and selection processes in place to hire their employees, for example Boston Scientific, ESB, Google, and Dunnes Stores etc. In recruiting today we are now in an era where technology rules. The whole process of the recruitment and selection has and is continuously changing and evolving as the years go by. Its changing as technology is changing. As stated in paragraphs above recruitment and selection strategies can vary but now employers are turning to more efficient, effective and modern ways of recruiting staff. Methods today are changing drastically for not just the employer but the employee too. Online recruitment is the way forward and in 2013 its what most companies are using to recruit and select. Online recruitment uses the power of the internet to match people to jobs (George Finnegan- Lecture slides). Some examples of the online recruitment methods are using social networking sites like Facebook and twitter, job boards and even mobile apps. Research shows that 2012 was the year for workforce innovation; companies were testing in the use of social media in branding and marketing their organisations. But in 2013 research has shown that now companies are taking social further and that this year 2013 will be the year of social HR, as many organisations are integrating with social technology to recruit, develop and engage employees (Meister. J, 2013). Employers have begun to find out more about who they may be recruiting and selecting by going online. The Death of the CV, in 2013 the traditional CV is being replaced by a persons personal brand and how they are portrayed online. Now that times have changed employers are checking out potential candidates backgrounds before they are even interviewed. The manager that is going to hire you will definitely look into some of the following sources about a potential employee. (Meister. J, 2013). They will che ck your Facebook profile. They will enter your name into Google and Bing to see what may come up. They will check up on your twitter account to see how many followers you have and to look through your tweets. They will check your LinkedIn profile, they will look into the quality and size of it community. They will also check your recommendations on your LinkedIn profile. Another innovative approach online that some employers are taking in recruiting and selecting candidates is through Gamification. This process is edging its way in through the back door. Here is an example of how the Marriott use it as a method of recruiting and selecting. The Marriott Hotel have come up with a hotel-themed game that is played online, its quite similar to Farmville. In this game the players (potential candidates) have to play and manage the responsibilities if they were to be an actual manager in a kitchen. The candidate playing the game will get to know a bit about the industry, a lso there is a reward system in place to make it more realistic for the candidates. The basis behind the game is first of all the Marriotts name is growing outside the market, and the younger generation coming up they are finding new ways to interest them in careers in hospitality. Gamification is now a popular tool being used in the recruitment process because it attracts possible candidates through these social games on Facebook and LinkedIn. The game My Marriot on Facebook is an opportunity for any company to use a social network like these as a platform to engage global perspective new hires and show them what it could be like to work for them in there company (Meister. J, 2012). Another innovative approach used online to recruit is using YouTube a social media site it a very effective tool for recruiting employees today. It is used by managers who are hiring. They may talk about a role that they are looking to fill in their team. When using this method of recruitment it mean s that anybody who is a candidate for the job can get the chance to see where they might be working, who they may be working for and they may be working with. Another approach online that is being taken is RSS (really simple syndication). This website is used by applicants. Its a website that keeps potential applicants up to date with any jobs that have been posted online. There is a daily update about the posting of jobs without the applicant even having to return to the website. When the website is set up the RSS reader will continuously check websites for any new and available jobs that may have been posted online. It will then proceed to show these jobs to the applicant without them having to do a thing. This section of the report will discuss some of the disadvantages of online recruitment. Today online recruitment and selection is one of the most popular methods with most companies and it is the way forward in this process. There can also be some disadvantages to this me thod. The first disadvantage may be the high volume of responses to the job because now everyone around the world is able to gain internet access so easily they could see the job advertisement online. Many unqualified may apply for the job this may be time consuming for a company to go through each applicant. To avoid this happening make sure the job advertisement is specific to exactly what you are looking for. Another disadvantage is online recruiting is too impersonal because a lot of it involves emailing and telephone interviews this can make it come across as too impersonal. The employer may not get the chance to interview the possible candidate multiple times; this makes it hard for the employer to determine if the candidate would be correct for the job and for the company and its culture. Another disadvantage of online recruitment is security problems that may come about with the internet. People can create spams and fake profiles. Here are some of the more innova tive approaches being taken by companies in 2013 towards filling vacancies in an organisation. These recruitment sources have become very popular also. This section of the report will discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of these different recruitment methods. Companies have now begun to use airplane banners in recruiting. The advantage of these is that it will grasp the attention of potential applicants. Although some may think it is an unprofessional approach even slightly intrusive. Companies have also begun to hang large banners and signs. The advantage of these banners is that they are cheap making them cost effective. But also they may be considered as an unprofessional approach and a busy location is always needed. Bill bored advertising is now another popular recruitment method. Its advantage is its a high volume attention grabber but its unable to display a large amount of information this could come as a disadvantage. Another popular recruitment met hod that is now being used is companies have begun to use competitions to recruit. The advantage of this would be the opportunity to evaluate skills before extending the job offer. It may be very time consuming though. The use of kiosks makes it easy for the person to apply for the job. The disadvantage of kiosks would be the unmonitored application flow. Many companies are now using movie ads because they attract people who are currently looking for a job. The disadvantage is that these ads may be intrusive and disturbing. Another recruitment method would be on site recruitment. Here the company can reach a wide variety and audience of people; it also saves time and deals with good public relations. There would be a disadvantage that it would deal with lots of unqualified applicants. To conclude this essay it entails a thorough analysis and discussion and on what the recruitment and selection process is and how it is one of the many roles played by a human resource mana ger. There is a definition of what recruitment is and what selection is and how they come together as a process. In the report it states many different methods of recruitment and different selection processes. It discusses why it is so essential to recruit and select employees who are fully committed. The report then goes on to discuss the innovative approaches that are now being used by companies in recruiting and selecting. This was the primary aim of the report. The main one and most popular being online recruitment. It discusses firstly how employers are now before interviewing possible candidates, finding out more about these candidates online. Then the report discusses a new innovative approach called gamification that is starting to become popular and how companies are using it as a tool for recruiting. The report also states some of the disadvantages of online recruitment. After discussing the innovative online approaches of recruitment and selection in the report, the re is then a few other examples of innovative approaches that are being used in recruitment and selection in 2013. Here the advantages and disadvantages are discussed of each. In my opinion after researching this topic on recruitment and selection it gave me a better understanding and insight into how companies are going about recruiting and selecting today. As technology is evolving so are the methods and processes of recruitment and selection. In an article that was discussed in the report it stated that 2013 will be the year of social HR, as many organisations are integrating with social technology to recruit, develop and engage employees. The further I researched the more true this statement became. I feel after doing this research that online recruitment will be how all companies will be recruiting and selecting within the next few years. As technology gets more innovative so will the approaches to how companies will recruit and select. There where both pros and cons to o nline recruitment but within the next year I feel that any negative of online recruitment will be flushed out. There is no problem with using the old methods of recruitment and selection but as the new generation workforce coming up now they should be mostly aware and comfortable with the online methods that they are going to come across as they begin to look for employment. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Recruitment And Selection Process Business Essay" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Battle of Bannockburn in the War for Scottish Independence

The Battle of Bannockburn was fought June 23-24, 1314, during the First War of Scottish Independence (1296-1328). Advancing north to relieve Stirling Castle and reclaim lands in Scotland lost after his fathers death, Edward II of England encountered the Scottish army of Robert the Bruce near the castle. In the resulting Battle of Bannockburn, the Scots routed the invaders and drove them from the field. One of the iconic victories in Scottish history, Bannockburn secured Roberts place on the throne and set the stage for his nations independence. Background In the spring of 1314, Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert the Bruce, laid siege to English-held Stirling Castle. Unable to make any significant progress, he struck a deal with the castles commander, Sir Philip Mowbray, that if the castle was not relieved by Midsummer Day (June 24) it would be surrendered to the Scots. By the terms of the deal a large English force was required to arrive within three miles of the castle by the specified date. Great Hall of Stirling Castle from the Nether Bailey. Photo  © 2007 Patricia A. Hickman This arrangement displeased both King Robert, who wished to avoid pitched battles, and King Edward II who viewed the potential loss of the castle as a blow to his prestige. Seeing an opportunity to regain the Scottish lands lost since his fathers death in 1307, Edward prepared to march north that summer. Assembling a force numbering around 20,000 men, the army included seasoned veterans of the Scottish campaigns such as the Earl of Pembroke, Henry de Beaumont, and Robert Clifford. Departing Berwick-upon-Tweed on June 17, it moved north through Edinburgh and arrived south of Stirling on the 23rd. Long aware of Edwards intentions, Bruce was able to assemble 6,000-7,000 skilled troops as well as 500 cavalry, under Sir Robert Keith, and approximately 2,000 small folk. With the advantage of time, Bruce was able train his soldiers and better prepare them for the coming battle. The Scots Prepare The basic Scottish unit, the schiltron (shield-troop) consisted of around 500 spearmen fighting as a cohesive unit. As the immobility of schiltron had been fatal at the Battle of Falkirk, Bruce instructed his soldiers in fighting on the move. As the English marched north, Bruce shifted his army to the New Park, a wooded area overlooking the Falkirk-Stirling road, a low-lying plain known as the Carse, as well as a small stream, the Bannock Burn, and its nearby marshes. Robert the Bruce. Public Domain As the road offered some of the only firm ground on which the English heavy cavalry could operate, it was Bruces goal to force Edward to move right, over the Carse, in order to reach Stirling. To accomplish this, camouflaged pits, three feet deep were dug on both sides of the road. Once Edwards army was on the Carse, it would be constricted by the Bannock Burn and its wetlands and forced to fight on a narrow front, thus negating its superior numbers. Despite this commanding position, Bruce debated giving battle until the last minute but was swayed by reports that English morale was low. Battle of Bannockburn Conflict: First War of Scottish Independence (1296-1328)Date: June 23-24, 1314Armies Commanders:ScotlandKing Robert the BruceEdward Bruce, Earl of CarrickSir Robert KeithSir James DouglasThomas Randolph, Earl of Moray6,000-6,500 menEnglandKing Edward IIEarl of HerefordEarl of Gloucesterapproximately 20,000 menCasualties:Scots: 400-4,000English: 4,700-11,700 Early Actions On June 23, Mowbray arrived in Edwards camp and told the king that battle was not necessary as the terms of the bargain had been met. This advice was ignored, as part of the English army, led by the Earls of Gloucester and Hereford, moved to attack Bruces division at the south end of the New Park. As the English approached, Sir Henry de Bohun, nephew of the Earl of Hereford, spotted Bruce riding in front of his troops and charged. Robert the Bruce kills Henry de Bohun. Public Domain The Scottish king, unarmored and armed with only a battle axe, turned and met Bohuns charge. Evading the knights lance, Bruce cleaved Bohuns head in two with his axe. Chastised by his commanders for taking such a risk, Bruce simply complained that he had broken his axe. The incident helped inspire the Scots and they, with aid of the pits, drove off Gloucester and Herefords attack. To the north, a small English force led by Henry de Beaumont and Robert Clifford was also beaten off by the Scottish division of the Earl of Moray. In both cases, the English cavalry was defeated by the solid wall of Scottish spears. Unable to move up the road, Edwards army moved to the right, crossing the Bannock Burn, and camped for the night on the Carse. Bruce Attacks At dawn on the 24th, with Edwards army surrounded on three sides by the Bannock Burn, Bruce turned to the offensive. Advancing in four divisions, led by Edward Bruce, James Douglas, the Earl of Moray, and the king, the Scottish army moved towards the English. As they drew near, they paused and knelt in prayer. Seeing this, Edward reportedly exclaimed, Ha! they kneel for mercy! To which an aid replied, Yea sire, they kneel for mercy, but not from you. These men will conqueror or die. As the Scots resumed their advance, the English rushed to form up, which proved difficult in confined space between the waters. Almost immediately, the Earl of Gloucester charged forward with his men. Colliding with the spears of Edward Bruces division, Gloucester was killed and his charge broken. The Scottish army then reached the English, engaging them along the entire front. Scottish troops drive the English back at the Battle of Bannockburn. Public Domain Trapped and pressed between the Scots and the waters, the English were unable to assume their battle formations and soon their army became a disorganized mass. Pushing forward, the Scots soon began to gain ground, with the English dead and wounded being trampled. Driving home their assault with cries of Press on! Press on! the Scots attack forced many in the English rear to flee back across the Bannock Burn. Finally, the English were able to deploy their archers to attack the Scottish left. Seeing this new threat, Bruce ordered Sir Robert Keith to attack them with his light cavalry. Riding forward, Keiths men struck the archers, driving them from the field. As the English lines began to waver, the call went up On them, on them! They fail! Surging with renewed strength, the Scots pressed home the attack. They were aided by the arrival of the small folk (those lacking training or weapons) who had been held in reserve. Their arrival, coupled with Edward fleeing the field, led to the English armys collapse and a rout ensued. Aftermath The Battle of Bannockburn became the greatest victory in the history of Scotland. While full recognition of Scottish independence was still several years off, Bruce had driven the English from Scotland and secured his position as king. While exact numbers of Scottish casualties are not known, they are believed to have been light. English losses are not known with precision but may have ranged from 4,000-11,000 men. Following the battle, Edward raced south and finally found safety at Dunbar Castle. He never again returned to Scotland.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Homeless People Move Into Traditional Housing Essay

Many public policies have been done to reduce the number of the homelessness and to help out those to rebound back to the normal life. Most policies focus on ending homelessness. Programs such as Continuum of Care Program (CoC) which is helping homeless people move into traditional housing, Emergency Solutions Grants Program (ESG) which is regaining stability in permanent housing, Rural Housing Stability Assistance Program (RHSP) which is stabilizing the individuals and who with risk of losing housing, and Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program which is assisting and preventing the homelessness. These efforts actually bring the decreasing result. According to the National Alliance to End homelessness, Between 2005 and 2008, chronic homelessness in Wichita/Sedgwick County (KS) decreased by 61 percent. From 2006 to 2008, Norfolk (VA) reduced homelessness by 25 percent. From 2005 to 2007, homelessness among families in Chicago (IL) decreased by 23 percent. The number of fa milies in shelter in Westchester County (NY) declined by 57 percent. From 2005 to 2008, chronic homelessness declined by 50 percent in Quincy (MA)† (â€Å"What Can We Do about Homelessness?†). Although the number of homelessness is decreased in some states, the reality does not change. There are many people still out there on the sidewalk. Is it possible to remove all homeless people out from the street? There are many plans and programs existed to reduce the number and to prevent it to be happened;Show MoreRelatedMayor Schells Zero Homeless Family Pledge1240 Words   |  5 Pages2 Policy Choices: 2 Pre Implementation and Design Strategies 4 Steps Taken to Reengineer the Program 4 Importance of Conducting Assessments Prior to Implementation 5 References: 6 Abstract: The paper discusses Mayors Schells zero homeless family pledge. 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Cultural Issues of Human Resource Management Free Essays

string(128) " points out the dangers of our assumptions and beliefs systems when working with coachees from varying origins and backgrounds\." International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. We will write a custom essay sample on Cultural Issues of Human Resource Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2 August, 2007 Page 45 Carrying Cultural Baggage: the contribution of socio-cultural anthropology to cross-cultural coaching Barbara St Claire-Ostwald, CINCRA International Coaching Training Consultancy, UK Email Contact: barbara@cincra. com Abstract This study examines the cultural awareness of professionals working in organisations. Given the multicultural nature of today’s workforce, it is becoming increasingly important for companies and coaches alike to take into account how cross-cultural differences may affect daily working practices. The study draws on a review of current research into cultural dimensions and looks at the complex relationship between personality and culture – our ‘cultural baggage’. In order to explore the opinions and cultural awareness of participants, a questionnaire was developed. The purpose of the questionnaire was to identify themes and orientations to cross-cultural issues in terms not only of communality but also of paradoxes. The results highlighted a high level of recognition of cultural dilemmas and a perceived need and willingness to address and reconcile them. However, the diversity of opinions about the potential benefits of specific methods of addressing cultural dilemmas suggested considerable uncertainly about dealing with cross cultural issues. Key Words: Cross-cultural, cultural baggage, cultural dimensions, coaching, mentoring, socio-cultural anthropology Introduction The aim of this paper is to report on the results of a study designed to explore the emerging discipline of cross-cultural coaching (Rosinski 2003) and to establish the levels of awareness about, and attitudes to cross-cultural issues; the patterns and/or relationships between awareness, attitudes and cultural dimensions among businesses and business consultants, coaches, mentors and coaching/mentoring organisations. I began this study from the perspective that while there has been some research into mentoring and coaching, there appeared to be little that focussed specifically on cross-cultural influences. In my review of the available literature, it became increasingly clear that the integration of a cultural perspective into coaching was very much at the ‘pioneering’ stage. The main aims of this study were to try and establish levels of awareness bout, and attitudes to cross-cultural issues; and to study the patterns and/or relationships between awareness, attitudes and the cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede and Trompenaars and HampdenTurner among businesses and business consultants, and coaching organisations. Cross-cultural coaching addresses the way in which cultural differences affect the daily lives of people, and raises awareness of cultural differences and the effect they can have on the process of managing others and doing business in general. In today’s global economy organisations understand that to sustain successful and resilient businesses and to keep their competitive edge, they must develop employees who understand their global business, and employ people with global skills. Rosinski (2003) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) have developed pioneering work in cross-cultural competencies and coaching methods. At a fundamental level, their International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. 2 August, 2007 Page 46 work has been based on the works of socio-cultural anthropologists Hofstede (1980) and Schwartz (1994). Their contribution in overcoming cultural miscommunication, tension and conflict, including the perils of stereotyping and ‘mono-culturalism’, has helped to formulate and explore the hypothesis of this study. Cultural baggage: a by-product of cultural systems Socio-anthropological thinking is based on the premise that all humans are born with the same basic physical characteristics, but depending on where they grow up, each individual is exposed to different climates, foods, languages, religious beliefs etc. Therefore, ‘are we really self-made or did our parents, teachers, families and friends have a hand in it? ’ (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1997, p. 54). Thus, one could argue that the socioanthropological perspective on culture takes a holistic view, describing culture as a pattern of learned and shared behaviours of people and/or groups consisting of belief systems and languages; and of social relationships be they personal, organisational, or institutional. (Hall, 1963; Hall and Hall, 1987; Hofstede, 1980; Kondo, 1990; Levi-Strauss, 1966; Schwartz, 1994). Therefore, at a fundamental level, it could be argued that culture is a representation of a complete way of life of a people who share the same attitudes, values and practices. Csikszentmihalyi (1997, p. 7) makes the distinction of ‘identity’ by using snowflakes as a metaphor: â€Å"They look identical as they fall, but taking a closer look, we soon discover that they are not identical†. Hence, he argues, rather than seeing identity as a single unitary self, perhaps cultural identity should be viewed as being multi-faceted, i. e. cknowledging that people have a number of selves or identities depending on context and setting. For example, the biggest barrier individuals and/or employees encounter is not necessarily that they come from different parts of the world, or that they speak a different language or even occupy a different physical space, it is the baggage they carry in their own cultural suitcases which needs to be explored. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner m aintain that what people expect depends on where they come from, and the meanings they give to what they have or are experiencing. They argue that â€Å"expectations occur on many different levels, from concrete, explicit level to implicit and subconscious ones† (1997, p. 21). Furthermore, they describe culture as consisting of various layers: †¦The outer layers are the products and artefacts that symbolise the deeper, more basic values and assumptions about life. The different layers are not independent from one another, but are complementary [†¦]. The shared meanings that are the core of the culture are man-made; are incorporated into people within a culture yet transcend the people in culture. (1997, p. 7) Cross-cultural dilemmas Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner argue that â€Å"Every culture distinguishes itself from others by the specific solutions it chooses to certain problems which reveal themselves as dilemmas† (p. 8); to this end, they have incorporated best management theories into their own analysis of the task of managing across cultures. These theories were realized by using a participant questionnaire profiler, which was based on their Seven Dimensions of Culture model and by incorporating Trompenaars and Woolliams framework for managing change across cultures. Similarly, Rosinski points out the dangers of our assumptions and beliefs systems when working with coachees from varying origins and backgrounds. You read "Cultural Issues of Human Resource Management" in category "Papers" He argues that by providing a framework for integrating coaching and cultural perspectives, i. e. examining numerous International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. 2 August, 2007 Page 47 cultural orientations, styles and approaches to coaching, the development of a cross-cultural mindset will be facilitated. For example, he writes: Our identity could be viewed as this personal and dynamic synthesis of multiple cultures. Our behaviour will typically vary depending on the group we happen to be associated with [. †¦]. The fact that our behaviours depend in part on the particular cultural context further justifies the need for coaches to integrate the cultural perspective into their practice. In some cases the obstacle to someone’s progress may be cultural rather than psychological, thus calling for a different coaching dialogue. p. 1) Furthermore, he maintains that cultural awareness is more than just realizing another culture is different from our own; it is also about learning to value that other culture. He argues that culture is behind our behaviour, and often without our realization. It can influence how close we stand, how loud we speak, how we deal with conflict and as a result, by failing to understand how culture impacts our needs and preferences, culture can often lead us to misinterpret behaviour. Methodology As the research was exploratory, I focussed the design on two main aspects: the initial review of literature which drew on a broad array of coaching and socio-anthropological theories and studies, and the less extensive, but nevertheless in-depth cross-cultural coaching work of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997), and Rosinski (2003). In turn, this provided the basis for the primary research, which took the form of a questionnaire which was sent to a small expert survey sample to identify cross-cultural themes and patterns. To ensure that survey participants had some recognizable expertise on the subject under investigation, I adopted the model in (Fig. 1) below. On the one hand, I was attempting to quantify levels of awareness of cross-cultural issues, as well as to explore the accompanying opinions, beliefs and assumptions, and how they relate to the dimensions of culture. I was also trying to make sure that the survey respondents would have an interest in this particular area of study. Fig. Survey Sample and Questionnaire Model Corporate/Business Consultants Awareness Opinions Coaching Organisations The survey sample was not only limited in size, but also in terms of the geographical make-up of the participants, who were mostly from the U. K. with the rest from continental Europe. By International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. 2 August, 2007 Page 48 extension it would be difficult to generalise from the results, however, this was not the intention of the study. While gender could also be a factor which might influence attitudes and responses, the exploratory nature of the study precluded it from being a controlled variable at this point, although this issue could form the basis for further research. The purpose of the initial questionnaire was to elicit the opinions of the survey participants in order to identify themes and orientations to cross-cultural issues, in terms of communality as well as potential paradoxes. It was also intended to see how these opinions and orientations fitted with responses to questions about the various cultural dimensions identified and developed by Hofstede and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner. The questionnaire was therefore divided into two parts. The first section addressed the opinions about attitudes, values and behaviours pertaining to culture in general, cultural dilemmas and, to crosscultural coaching and training specifically. I also decided to use a number of similar questions to check for inconsistencies in responses, which might indicate either a paradox in terms of opinions, possibly a conflict between a ‘norm’ and a given individual’s personal view, or could reflect a lack of appreciation for, or indeed indifference to, a given issue. The second section of the questionnaire was constructed on the basis of Hofstede’s and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s cultural dimensions, and sought to elicit culture-specific values, beliefs and assumptions which could influence cross-cultural interaction within a professional environment. Results, discussions and recommendations In analyzing the responses to the questionnaire, it was evident that there was a high level of recognition of the importance of cross-cultural issues, and the need to address and reconcile them. However it was very difficult to define or quantify levels of cultural awareness, which was to some extent unsurprising given the complexity of the issues involved. But as I outlined in the methodology, a major objective was also to explore the quality of awareness and understanding of cultural dilemmas and dimensions. In this respect, the first section of the questionnaire (on attitudes to culture and potential cross-cultural training solutions) was very instructive in terms of perceptions about the relationship between culture and personality. In my opinion, the most notable contrast was that there was considerably greater agreement that culture shapes the personality and a lot more uncertainty about how the individual shapes culture. This impression was further reinforced by the general agreement that managers from different cultures do not necessarily find it easy to adapt their behaviour to fit the different needs of another culture. From a coaching perspective, it suggests some attention needs to be paid to how an individual perceives and relates to his/her culture. For example, there is a clear difference between seeing culture as providing a framework for social interaction, which is constantly evolving, and on the other hand perceiving culture as providing a set of social constraints. In either case, there may be some elements of our culture, which at an individual level are considered to be important in our everyday lives, while there are others which may be difficult to accept, which could be sources of tension with other members of our culture. Given that such perceptions may be operating partly at a subconscious level, this may not be easy to establish. But they appear to me to be a significant element in the process of gaining a better understanding of our cultural baggage, i. e. in how we synthesize the myriad of cultural groupings to which we are exposed on a daily basis. There was greater diversity of opinion about the benefits of specific cross-cultural training solutions, and when, where and how they might be applied. The initial conclusion that can be drawn is this shows that the process of integrating the cross-cultural domain into both business and coaching practice is still at an early stage of development. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. 2 August, 2007 Page 49 As far as improving the general awareness and understanding of the benefits of cross-cultural training, three sets of responses in the first section seem to me to define some of the issues that need to be addressed. Firstly the fact that half of the respondents believed that cultural issues within organisations are dealt with only if they relate to behavioural issues is indicative of a certain level of resistance to dealing with these issues, which may be due to an appreciation of the complexity of such issues. On the other hand, if cultural issues in some organisations are only addressed when there is a behavioural conflict, then this will tend to cast them in a negative light. Hence it does lead to the conclusion that some organisations are not sufficiently aware that ignoring and playing down cultural differences, as well as evaluating them negatively, is a major contributor to miscommunication, misunderstanding and conflict. Secondly, while coaches largely agreed that business managers recognise that diversity training should now include cross-cultural training for employees sent on global assignments, the business organisation responses were much divided. This leads me to conclude that some businesses are either unaware, or possibly not persuaded of the benefits of this specific approach. Nevertheless this set of responses, and the fact that none of the respondents disagreed that incorporating the dilemmas deriving from the differences in cultural dimensions help organisations to integrate their cultural orientations suggests that the key area of uncertainty among businesses and coaches is the method and/or models of integrating cultural dilemmas. The point that this suggests to me is, that before any attempt is made to develop the skills necessary to negotiate the differences between cultures, a greater awareness of how we negotiate difference in our own culture is required. This is to say we need to be more consciously and self-critically aware of the assumptions that underlie our habitual responses and modes of interaction, in other words our cultural baggage. In principal this is already the main focus of traditional coaching and mentoring. But I believe considerably more research needs to be conducted into how these methods and skills can be developed to take account of and integrate cross-cultural issues and dilemmas. From national to cross-cultural perspectives Cross-cultural research has largely focused on national differences because it is much easier to establish a person’s nationality, than to identify him/her as belonging to another type of cultural grouping, be that regional, professional, political, economic or social. The most frequently cited reason is that a given individual will be a member of numerous forms of socalled sub-cultures or higher level cultures (e. g. European), which in effect rules them out as unique independent variables. But I believe that without exercising some control for the effect of these ‘other’ cultural variables, it is difficult to be sure that attributing a given behaviour, belief, value or attitude expressed by an individual to national cultural influences is theoretically or empirically valid. For example, even at a national level, there has to be particular care to acknowledge the difference between ethnically diverse nations such as Canada or Malaysia; ethnically and/or religiously divided nations such as Belgium or the former Yugoslavia, or relatively homogeneous nations such as Japan or Korea, let alone very complex national cultures such as China or India. In essence, this does nothing more than acknowledge that socio-cultural anthropology is the study of the dilemmas and problems of differences and similarities not only between, but also within societies. In the specific context of this study, one of the most interesting aspects of the responses to the second section of the questionnaire on cultural dimensions was the differences in opinions both within and between coaches and business organisations. My original intention in including a section on cultural dimensions was to explore the relationship between these responses and those on the first section of the questionnaire. But the differences of opinions between the two sets of respondents on ‘universalism vs. particularism’ and ‘individualism vs. ommunitarianism’ (Fig. 6) suggested to me that I had to consider whether these opinions in some way reflected values that were influenced by the differing needs and requirements of the corporate and coaching environments. I cannot conclude whether this was the key influence International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. 2 August, 2007 Page 50 on these responses. However I do think this e mphasizes that it is tenuous to assume that the responses to such value dimensions questionnaires can be ascribed largely to national culture. I also believe that the way that corporate and professional culture influences our habits and values requires a great deal more in-depth research. For example, it might be interesting to establish whether there are differences in the responses to a cultural dimensions questionnaire between professional groups, e. g. doctors, police officers, computer programmers, sports professionals, etc. , and how these compare to national differences. However, it also has to be acknowledged that the difficulty of drawing any definite conclusions about key influences is clearly a limitation to the use of questionnaires in general. This does suggest it would have been preferable to be able to expand and explore the data that was generated by the questionnaires via follow-up interviews. But, as discussed in the methodology, this would have required a lot more time and resources than were available to me in this study. Nevertheless analyzing the results in relation to the problem of ignoring and playing down the importance of cultural differences also suggested that the questionnaire design needed refinement. Specifically, I was unable to deduce or make any assumptions about what level of importance each respondent attached to each of the dimensions. A system of ranking the various value dimensions is not a new concept or methodology, in that it is very similar to the two ‘basic bipolar’ dimensions of ‘openness to change vs. conservation’ and ‘selfenhancement vs. self transcendence’ that are incorporated as higher dimensions in the Schwartz Value Inventory (Fig. 4). But more importantly I think that more research into developing a system of ranking the value dimensions would not only help to identify those value dimensions, which may be ignored, downplayed or even negatively evaluated, but also provide a potentially very useful tool for integrating the cross-cultural dimension into traditional coaching and mentoring practices. Conclusion From this specific perspective, a focus on quantifying how national cultures differ along the various value dimensions that have been identified does run some risk of contributing to the formation of cultural stereotypes, which have little or no predictive value. This is why greater emphasis needs to be placed on understanding our own ‘cultural baggage’ from a coaching perspective, particularly on the dynamic processes of the way in which our own culture has, and is evolving. The building blocks of improving cultural awareness and developing cross-cultural skills therefore have much in common with the key skills associated with building rapport as a coach or mentor. For the coach or business organisation, it is therefore about understanding the processes involved with the different ways in which we negotiate social interaction, and the elements of the various models of culture. These range from the apparently simple distinction between the visible and invisible level of values (Fig. 1) to the complexity of Schwartz’s ‘Theoretical model of relations among motivational value types and two basic bipolar value dimensions’ (Fig. 4). It is about raising our awareness of what is subconscious and invisible up to a conscious and visible level; and from there we can develop the skills necessary to negotiate ways of interacting with others whose values, attitudes and habits, or indeed in contexts are unfamiliar to us. I believe that if this is to be achieved, coaching and cross-cultural research needs to transcend the limitations of a focus on national culture. It needs to acknowledge that cultural identity should be viewed as being multi-faceted, and that people have a number of selves or identities depending on context and setting. The work of Schwartz, Hofstede and Trompenaars Hampden-Turner has provided very valuable insight into the cultural dimensions, which help to identify the way in which values differ between national cultures. However, they would also be the first to acknowledge that International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. 2 August, 2007 Page 51 national cultures are in a constant state of change, and this in turn dictates the need to evolve their questionnaires, re-analyze the accompanying databases of results, and amend and redefine their models accordingly. But perhaps the key aspect for further research is to develop methods that place a greater emphasis on the processes though which culture changes. In other words how human actions and practices change, and new meanings evolve in response to changes to social contexts. By this I mean for example: the impact of increased migration (whether voluntary, or in response to political or economic factors), or the proliferation of new forms of communication like the internet, not only on working environments, but on the myriad ways in which we organize our social lives. The point being that this should help to move research and practice from a focus on more abstract concepts such as values, to the ways in which culture is produced and negotiated. Consequently, as Rosinski (2003, p. xviii) said, ‘intercultural professionals will be better equipped to fulfil their commitment to extend people’s worldviews, bridge cultural gaps, and enable successful work across cultures’. References Clutterbuck, D. (1985), Everyone needs a Mentor, Fostering talent at work (3rd Ed), Trowbridge: The Cromwell Press Clutterbuck, D. (2003), ‘The Problem with research in mentoring’ The Coaching and Mentoring Network Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997), Living Well, The Psychology of Everyday Life, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Flaherty, J. 1999), Coaching – Evoking Excellence in Others, Burlington MA: Elsevier Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977, Ed. Colin Gordon, New York: Pantheon Books Gray, J. (2000), Two Faces of Liberalism, London: Polity Press Hall, E. T. (1963), The Silent Language, Greenwich Connecticut: Fawcett Publications Inc. Hall, E. T. (1976), Beyond Cul ture, Garden City NY: Anchor Press Hall, E. T. (1984), The Dance of Life – The Other Dimension of Time, Garden City NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday Hall, E. T. Hall, M. R. 1987), Hidden Differences – Doing business with the Japanese, Garden City NU: Anchor Press/Doubleday Hall, E. T. Hall, M. R. (1990), Understanding Cultural Differences, Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press Hofstede, G. H. (1980), Culture’s Consequences – International Differences in Work-Related Values, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications Hofstede, G. H. (1991), Cultures and Organizations – Software of the Mind, London: McGraw-Hill U. K. , (1997) New York, McGraw-Hill U. S. A. , Third Millennium Edition, and (2004) New York: McGraw-Hill U. S. A. Hofstede, G. H. (1998), Masculinity and Femininity – The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Hofstede, G. H. McCrae, R. R. (2004), ‘Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture’, Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 38, No. 1, p. 52-88 Hussey, J. Hussey, R. (1997), Business Research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students, London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Jarvis, J. (2004), Coaching and Buying Coaching Services – a CIPD guide, London: CIPD Enterprises Ltd Kerlinger, F. N. 1979,) Behavioural Research: A Conceptual Approach, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Kondo, D. (1990), Crafting Selves: Power, Gender and Discourses of Identity in a Japanese Workplace, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 9, 11-24 International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 5. No. 2 August, 2007 Page 52 Kram, K. E. (1988), Mentoring at Work – Developmental Relationships in Organi zational Life, Lanham: University Press of America Kuhn, T. S. (1962), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press Levi-Strauss, C. 1966), The Savage Mind, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Megginson, D. Clutterbuck, D. (1995), Mentoring in Action – a practical guide for managers, London: Kogan Page Ltd. Nietzsche, F. quotes, QuotationsPage (2005) http://www. quotationspage. com/quotes/Friedrich_Nietzsche/ Oxford Dictionary of English (2003), Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson (Editors), Oxford: Oxford University Press Peterson, D. Hicks, M. D. (1996), Leader as coach: Strategies for coaching and developing others, Minneapolis, MN: Personnel Decisions International Potter, J. Wetherell, M. (1995), ‘Discourse analysis’, in Smith, J. , Harre, R. , van Langenhove, R. , (Eds), Rethinking Methods in Psychology, London: Sage Robson C. (1992), Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitionerresearchers, Oxford: B lackwell Publishing Rosinski, P. (2003), Coaching Across Cultures, London: Nicholas Brealey Schwartz, S. H. (1994), Beyond Individualism/Collectivism – New Dimensions of Values. in Individualism and Collectivism: Theory Application and Methods, U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitciabasi, S. C. Choi and G. Yoon (Eds) Newbury Park CA: Sage. Tao Te Ching quotes, ThinkExist quotations (2005), http://en. thinkexist. com/quotes/Tao_Te_Ching The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000), 4th Ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin The Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Sociology (1991), 4th edition, Guilford, Connecticut: The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Trompenaars, F. Hampden-Turner, C. (1997), Riding the Waves of Culture, London: Nicholas Brealey (2nd Ed) Trompenaars, F. Hampden-Turner, C. 1993), The Seven Cultures of Capitalism, London: Piatkus Trompenaars, F. Woolliams, P. (2003), Journal of Change Management Vol. 3, 4, p. 361375: Henry Stewart Publication Watson, T. J. (2001), In Search of Management – Culture, chaos and control in managerial work, London: Thomson Learning Whitworth, L. , Kimsey-House, H. , Sandahl, P. (1998), Co-Active Coaching, Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing Zachary, L. J. (2000), The Mentor’s Guide – Facilitating Effective Learning Relationships, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Zeus, P. Skiffington, S. 2002), The Coaching at Work Toolkit – A Complete Guide to Techniques and Practices, Australia: McGraw-Hill Barbara StClaire-Ostwald is an international coach and freelance consultant who specialises in cross-cultural awareness and developing successful and effective communication skills for global managers and teams. Barbara grew up in the United Kingdom as a Polish/British dual national. Prior to setting up her coaching practice CINCRA, she lived and worked in the UK, Continental Europe and North Africa for over 30 years; working for multinationals in the private, public and not for profit sectors. Barbara is a member of the European Mentoring and Coaching Council (EMCC) and until recently, Chair of the EMCC European Conference Committee. She is also a member of the British Psychological Society, Chartered Institute of Personnel Development, British Sociological Association and the Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research (SIETAR). She is tri-lingual (Polish, English, French) and she is able to converse in Dutch, German, Czech and Slovak. How to cite Cultural Issues of Human Resource Management, Papers

Hamlets Hamartia Essay Example For Students

Hamlets Hamartia Essay Hamlet is the most written about tragedy in the history of man. But, why is it a tragedy? Is it because Hamlet has a tragic flaw that creates his downfall? Or is it that all the cards are stacked against him since the beginning of the play and there is no way he can prevail? I believe that it is a tragedy because of Hamlets tragic flaw. Hamlets tragic flaw is that he cannot act on impulse for things that require quick, decisive behavior, and that he acts on impulse for things that require more contemplation than is given by him. Hamlet speaks of his fathers tragic flaw that ultimately led him to his death, but it applies equally well to himself:So, oft it chances in particular men,That for some vicious mole of nature in them,As, in their birth, wherein they are not guilty(Since nature cannot choose his origin),By the o’ergrowth of some complexion,Oft breaking down the pales and forts of reason,Or by some habit that too much o’er-leavensThe form of plausive mannersthat t hese men,Carrying, I say, the stamp of one defect,Being nature’s livery, or fortune’s star,Their virtues else, be they as pure as grace,Shall in the general censure take corruptionFrom that particular fault. The dram of evilDoth all the noble substance of a doubtHamlet speaks of the one defect that is in particular men from birth, and the fact that that one defect is his particular fault. Hamlet says that this fault will corrupt the man. It seems to be an excuse from Shakespeare for why Hamlet will not act on impulse. As though he is giving the audience a hint that Hamlet has a tragic flaw. Shakespeare writes As, in their birth, wherein they are not guilty / (since nature cannot choose his origin) (1.4.26). Hamlet gives reason of his own flaw here.Although he is talking about his father having a tragic flaw, he states particular men (1.4.23), he is not denying that his character does not have a tragic flaw. Hamlet is making an excuse for any possible flaws that might a rise in the play. Shakespeare shows us that Hamlet retains his the ability to think lucidly and in depth with his monologue (3.1.56-89). Anytime that Hamlet has to act on something, such as in the church when he has the opportunity to kill Claudius while he was praying, He stops to think before he acts. There is no clear evidence of wrong doing until Claudius confesses his sins to God, his nephew, and the theater at large (Scott-Hopkins 1). The thinking eventually leads him to doubt, which leads him to inaction. He takes the time to reason and reasons himself out of acting. Hamlet speaks of his inability to takeThus conscience does make cowards of us all; And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied oer with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pitch and moment With this regard their currents turn awry And lose the name of action. (3.1.83-88) Hamlet knows of his own flaw and knows how it has affected his relationship with Ophelia also. Another example of when Hamlet cannot act on im pulse is in act 3,2 when he puts on the play to try to show proof to the rest of the court that Claudius murdered his father. He could not act on the ghosts words alone. It would have been easier if Hamlet did not alert Claudius to the fact that he knows who murdered his father. Hamlet acts without rational thought in a couple of scenes throughout the play. In Act 1, 4 Hamlet threatens Horatio and Marcellus to let him go so he can follow the ghost. He does not have a rational thought about it. He simply follows the ghost even with Horatio trying to talk him out of it. Another example to support Hamlets irrational acts is when he is in the Queens chambers in Act 3, 4 when he stabs Polonius through the arras, without knowledge of who it is. As soon as he hears someone speak, What, ho! help! (3.4.22), Hamlet, with little thought, draws his sword and speaks How now, a rat? Dead for a ducat, dead! (3.4.23-24) and stabs through the arras killing Polonius. It is this action, taken withoutt hought, which ultimately seals Hamlets fate. Hamlet is a tragedy because Hamlet could have avoided his own death. Hamlet had many opportunities to kill Claudius, but did not take advantage of them. He also had the option to tell the public that his father died by Claudius hand. Yet he did neither. He did neither because his tragic flaw kept him from achieving his goals. That is until the end. In the end after he realizes that his death is imminent and Claudius caused the death of his mother, he lets his anger overcome him. Hamlet kills Claudius in an impulsive act, thus overcoming his own tragic flaw' (GermanGirl2005 p.1). Bibliography:Works CitedShakespeare, William. Hamlet. The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Peter Simon.New York: W.W. Norton Company, Inc., 1998. .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f , .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .postImageUrl , .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f , .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f:hover , .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f:visited , .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f:active { border:0!important; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f:active , .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uaf018728ab5008d09181f6392f48469f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: None Provided47 EssayHamlets Tragic Flaw. Planet Papers. May. 2001. . (Retrieved 14th May. 2001). GermanGirl2005. Hamlets Tragic Flaw. Planet Papers. May. 2001. (Retrieved 14th May. 2001). Scott-Hopkins, Benjamin. Hamlet: Weakness or Justice?. (Retrieved 14th May. 2001).

Monday, May 4, 2020

Shakespeare Man or Myth Essay Example For Students

Shakespeare Man or Myth? Essay Was the man we know as Shakespeare really the author ofthe Shakespearean Works? We know little about the man calledShakespeare, Did he really write the plays, or is he just a man that got confused within history? (Sobran 44) There is not even acorrect spelling of this mans name, Some of the spellings includeShakspere, Shakespeare, And Shaxpere. Shakespeare, Is it the man, Or is it another? (Hayes 1D)Shakespeare is both fact and fiction, he was no concern untilnearly two hundred years after he perished, and there is still no definite or probably will there ever be a conclusion to thismystery. (Sobran 44) There is another man that can be attributed with the works of Shakespeare, His name is Edward DeVere, the 17th Earl of Oxford. (Bethell 47) The man known as Shakespeare does not fit perfectly into thenecessary criteria to determine the author of these works. Thomas Looney invented a series of criteria that had to be filled, in order to be a possible candidate for the authorship of the Shakespearean works. To have all the knowledge that is portrayed in the works, the author must have accomplished many things. These including a superior education, from what we know of Shakespeare, this was not apossibility. (Bethell 46) We do not even know if Shakespeare has everwritten anything in his life, Nor do we know that he was paid for writing these works. The man Shakespeare does not even make a claim that he is the author.(Bethell 50) He may not have been able to write the simplest thing of all, His own name.(Hayes 1D) Its not how little we know about Shakespeare that causes confusion and difficulty, Its the things that we do know about this man that cause the confusion and difficulty. We know Shakespears father, a glover, could not write. When he signed documents, he simply made an X, This is why it is beleived that Shakespeare could not write also, Because he probably did not attend school therefore his education was passed down from his father. (Bethell 48)We do know much more about the man Edward DeVere. We know thatbecause deVere was a nobleman, he could not have his name written upon his writings because he would be considered of a lower class. The plays contain a sense of hate towards some of the noblemen of that time period, which also point the authorship towards DeVere. (Hayes 1D) When DeVere was a young man, he spent a lot of time in Italy and Europe, This could explain the great detail used in the Shakespearean plays of Venice, and other European locations.(Sobran 45) The sonnets have never been able to fit into Shakespears life, On the other hand they fit into DeVeres life well. (Sobran 45)There are facts that lean both ways in this age old mystery ofauthorship, Though the Strafordian man does not fit into the story very well, He may have some advantages that the Oxfordian man may not. DeVere on the other hand, has mostly every fact pointing towards him as the valid author for the Shakespearean works, From his education, to his experiences, to his travel. The Oxfordian seems to come out on top. Shakespeare: Stratforidan, or DeVere?